Final Exam à May 9th, 2007
Break à April 4th, 1007
Why are some surahs called Makki Surahs?
- Because they were revealed in Makkah
- Because they were revealed prior to the hijarah
Why are some surahs called MadaniSurahs?
- Because they were revealed in Madinah
- Because they were revealed after the hijarah
The difference in styles of Makki and Madani surahs is due to the conditions, circumstances, and addresses of the respective times. During the Makkan period, Muslims had to deal with idolaters of Arabia. As a result, emphasis was laid on correction of beliefs, morals, refutation of idolaters and the miracle of the Qur’an itself. During the Madani period, an Islamic state had been established. So therefore, great attention was paid to injunctions, laws, limits, and duties as well as refutation of the people of the Book.
Surah Al-Hujuraat discusses about manners and actions, especially for those that hold leadership in da’wah efforts.
It is mentioned FIVE times in Surah Al-Hujuraat ‘O Believers..”, which we as believers need to pay great attention to them:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
O believers! Put not yourselves forward before Allah and His Messenger; but fear Allah: for Allah is He Who hears and knows all things. (49:1)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ
O believers! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not. (49:2)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَأٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَى مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ
O believers! If a wicked person comes to you with any news, ascertain the truth, lest ye harm people unwittingly, and afterwards become full of repentance for what ye have done. (49:6)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَسْخَرْ قَومٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُونُوا خَيْرًا مِّنْهُمْ وَلَا نِسَاء مِّن نِّسَاء عَسَى أَن يَكُنَّ خَيْرًا مِّنْهُنَّ وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ بِئْسَ الاِسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
O believers! Let not some men among you laugh at others: It may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): Nor let some women laugh at others: It may be that the (latter are better than the (former): Nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames: Ill-seeming is a name connoting wickedness, (to be used of one) after he has believed: And those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong. (49:11)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيراً مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ
أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ
O believers! Avoid suspicion as much (as possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin: And spy not on each other behind their backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye would abhor it...But fear Allah: For Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful. (49:12)
It is mentioned once in Surah Al-Hujuraat ‘O Mankind..”, which we as a whole mankind need to pay great attention to:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ
O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). (49:13)
What does Hujuraat mean?
- Hujuraat is the plural form Hujrah, which means “room.” So hujuraat means “rooms.”
- It is only mentioned once in the Qur’an à Ayat 4
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُنَادُونَكَ مِن وَرَاء الْحُجُرَاتِ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
Those who shout out to thee from without the inner apartments - most of them lack understanding. (4)
- The name refers to the one-room houses of the Prophet Muhammad (sallahu alaihyi wa salaam). There were nine rooms in his house, one for each of his wives. Each room was so small, basically enough to bury three people.
How were the surahs named?
- Majority of the titles of the surahs were chosen by the Sahaabah and scholars of later generations for identification purposes.
- Some of the surahs were named by Allah (swt) or by Prophet Muhammad (sallahu alaihyi wa salaam)
How Surah Al-Hujuraat was revealed?
- Revealed in Madinah in the 9th year after the Hijrah
- Focuses on societal laws
- Even though it was revealed after Surah Al-Mujadala, the Prophet (sallahu alaihyi wa salaam) ordered that it be placed after Surah Al-Fath.
Background of the Surah Al-Hujuraat:
- After the conquest of Makkah (8th year after the Hijrah), delegations or “wafd” or “wufood,” used to come to Madinah to accept Islam or have dialogues with Prophet Muhammad (sallahu alaihyi wa salaam). Because of this, the 9th year became known as “The Year of the Delegations.” But these chiefs of the tribes were rude in dealing with Prophet Muhammad (sallahu alllahu alaihyi wa salaam). Because of their rudeness and manners, Allah revealed Surah Al-Hujuraat “to lay down a general code of behavior and a set of moral ideals for Muslims as well as all mankind”
- “This code represents the foundation essential for the formation of any truly Muslim community or the establishment of any Muslim movement for social change.”
The Qur’an must be recited with tajweed. Angel Jibrael recited the Qur’an with tajweed to the Prophet (sallahu alaihyi wa salaam).
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
Should always recite ‘Bismillah’ with tajweed. The meaning of ‘bismillah’ depends on the action you do afterwards (you basically say it to initiate the action). Should always recite ‘Bismillah’ before starting anything, so you can get the blessings for it.